SSRN-The Pecking Order, Trade-Off, Signaling, and Market-Timing Theories of Capital Structure: A Review by Anton Miglo:
This paper surveys 4 major capital structure theories: trade-off, pecking order, signaling and market timing. For each theory, a basic model and its major implications are presented. These implications are compared to the available evidence. This is followed by an overview of pros and cons for each theory. A discussion of major recent papers and suggestions for future research are provided."
Good for a primer on capital structure for class!